【港・集落】 長崎



A small fishing village secluded by harbours, Nagasaki enjoyed little historical significance until contact with European explorers in 1543—among them, possibly, Fernão Mendes Pinto—when a Portuguese ship landed nearby in Tanegashima. Soon after, Portuguese ships started sailing to Japan as regular trade freighters, thus increasing the contact and trade relations between Japan and the rest of the world, and particularly with mainland China, with whom Japan had previously severed its commercial and political ties, mainly due to a number of incidents involving Wokou piracy in the South China Sea, with the Portuguese now serving as intermediaries between the two Asian countries. Despite the mutual advantages derived from these trading contacts, which would soon be acknowledged by all parts involved, the lack of a proper seaport in Kyūshū for the purpose of harboring foreign ships posed a major problem for both merchants and the Kyushu daimyo (feudal lords) who expected to collect great advantages from these trade intercourse with the Portuguese. In the meantime, Navarrese Jesuit missionary St. Francis Xavier arrived in Kagoshima, South Kyūshū, in 1549, and soon initiated a thorough campaign of evangelization throughout Japan, but left for China in 1551 and died soon afterwards. His followers who remained behind converted a number of daimyo. The most notable among them was Ōmura Sumitada, who derived great profit from his conversion to the "Kirishitan" religion through an accompanying deal to receive a portion of the trade from Portuguese ships. In 1569, Ōmura gave permit for the establishment of a port with the purpose of harboring Portuguese ships in Nagasaki, which was finally set in 1571, under the supervision of the Jesuit missionary Gaspar Vilela and Portuguese Captain-Major Tristão Vaz de Veiga, with Ōmura's personal assistance.

The little harbor village quickly grew into a diverse port city, and Portuguese products imported through Nagasaki (such as tobacco, bread, textiles and a Portuguese sponge-cake called castellas) were assimilated into popular Japanese culture. Tempura derived from a popular Portuguese recipe originally known as peixinho-da-horta, and takes its name from the Portuguese word, 'tempero' another example of the enduring effects of this cultural exchange. The Portuguese also brought with them many goods from China.
Due to the instability during the Sengoku period, Sumitada and Jesuit leader Alexandro Valignano conceived a plan to pass administrative control over to the Society of Jesus rather than see the Catholic city taken over by a non-Catholic daimyo. Thus, for a brief period after 1580, the city of Nagasaki was a Jesuit colony, under their administrative and military control. It became a refuge for Christians escaping maltreatment in other regions of Japan.
In 1587, however, Toyotomi Hideyoshi's campaign to unify the country arrived in Kyūshū. Concerned with the large Christian influence in southern Japan, as well as the active and what was perceived as the arrogant role the Jesuits were playing in the Japanese political arena, Hideyoshi ordered the expulsion of all missionaries, and placed the city under his direct control. However, the expulsion order went largely unenforced, and the fact remained that most of Nagasaki's population remained openly practicing Catholic.
In 1596, the Spanish ship San Felipe was wrecked off the coast of Shikoku, and Hideyoshi learned from its pilot that the Spanish Franciscans were the vanguard of an Iberian invasion of Japan. In response, Hideyoshi ordered the crucifixions of twenty-six Catholics in Nagasaki on February 5 of that year (i.e. the "Twenty-six Martyrs of Japan"). Portuguese traders were not ostracized, however, and so the city continued to thrive.

In 1602, Augustinian missionaries also arrived in Japan, and when Tokugawa Ieyasu took power in 1603, Catholicism was still tolerated. Many Catholic daimyo had been critical allies at the Battle of Sekigahara, and the Tokugawa position was not strong enough to move against them. Once Osaka Castle had been taken and Toyotomi Hideyoshi's offspring killed, though, the Tokugawa dominance was assured. In addition, the Dutch and English presence allowed trade without religious strings attached. Thus, in 1614, Catholicism was officially banned and all missionaries ordered to leave. Most Catholic daimyo apostatized, and forced their subjects to do so, although a few would not renounce the religion and left the country for Macau, Luzon and Japantowns in Southeast Asia. A brutal campaign of persecution followed, with thousands of converts across Kyūshū and other parts of Japan killed, tortured, or forced to renounce their religion.
Catholicism's last gasp as an open religion, and the last major military action in Japan until the Meiji Restoration, was the Shimabara Rebellion of 1637. While there is no evidence that Europeans directly incited the rebellion, Shimabara Domain had been a Christian han for several decades, and the rebels adopted many Portuguese motifs and Christian icons. Consequently, in Tokugawa society the word "Shimabara" solidified the connection between Christianity and disloyalty, constantly used again and again in Tokugawa propaganda.
The Shimabara Rebellion also convinced many policy-makers that foreign influences were more trouble than they were worth, leading to the national isolation policy. The Portuguese, who had been previously living on a specially constructed island-prison in Nagasaki harbour called Dejima, were expelled from the archipelago altogether, and the Dutch were moved from their base at Hirado into the trading island. In 1720 the ban on Dutch books was lifted, causing hundreds of scholars to flood into Nagasaki to study European science and art. Consequently, Nagasaki became a major center of rangaku, or "Dutch Learning". During the Edo period, the Tokugawa shogunate governed the city, appointing a hatamoto, the Nagasaki bugyō, as its chief administrator.

Consensus among historians was once that Nagasaki was Japan's only window on the world during its time as a closed country in the Tokugawa era. However, nowadays it is generally accepted that this was not the case, since Japan interacted and traded with the Ryūkyū Kingdom, Korea and Russia through Satsuma, Tsushima and Matsumae respectively. Nevertheless, Nagasaki was depicted in contemporary art and literature as a cosmopolitan port brimming with exotic curiosities from the Western World.
In 1808, during the Napoleonic Wars the Royal Navy frigate HMS Phaeton entered Nagasaki Harbor in search of Dutch trading ships. The local magistrate was unable to resist the British demand for food, fuel, and water, later committing seppuku as a result. Laws were passed in the wake of this incident strengthening coastal defenses, threatening death to intruding foreigners, and prompting the training of English and Russian translators.

The Tōjinyashiki (唐人屋敷) or Chinese Factory in Nagasaki was also an important conduit for Chinese goods and information for the Japanese market. Various colourful Chinese merchants and artists sailed between the Chinese mainland and Nagasaki. Some actually combined the roles of merchant and artist such as 18th century Yi Hai. It is believed that as much as one-third of the population of Nagasaki at this time may have been Chinese.

港から人里離れた小さな漁村、長崎は1543年の間で、それらの、おそらく、Fernãoメンデス·ピント - ポルトガル船が種子島に近くに上陸したヨーロッパの探検家と接触するまで、少し歴史的意義を楽しんだ。 、ポルトガル船は、日本と世界の残りの部分との間の接触との貿易関係を高めるため、定期的な貿易の貨物船として日本に航海を開始し、特に中国本土で、日本は以前にその商業的および政治的関係を断絶した人で、主に後すぐに2つのアジア諸国との間の仲介者としてポルトガル語で南シナ海におけるWokou著作権侵害を含むインシデントの数。すぐに関係するすべての部分で認識されるこれらの取引の連絡先、から派生した相互の利点にもかかわらず、外国船を保有する目的のため九州の適切な海港の欠如は、商人や九州大名(大名)の両方に大きな問題を提起人はポルトガル語で、これらの貿易性交から大きな利点を収集するために期待される。その間に、Navarreseイエズス会の宣教師聖フランシスコ·ザビエルは、1549年に鹿児島県南九州に到着し、すぐに日本全国​​福音の徹底的なキャンペーンを開始したが、1551年に中国に残され、その後間もなく死亡した。残った彼の信奉者は、大名の数を変換します。その中で最も注目すべきは、ポルトガル船からの貿易の一部を受け取るために付随する取引を通して彼の転換から "キリシタン"宗教に大きな利益を派生した大村Sumitadaでした。 1569年、大村大村のと、イエズス会の宣教師ガスパルビレラとポルトガルのキャプテン - メジャーTristãoVAZ·デ·ベイガの監督の下で、ついに1571年に設定されていた長崎でポルトガル船を保有する目的を持つポートの確立のために許可を与えた個人的な援助。

小さな港村は急速に多様な港湾都市に成長し、長崎(例えば、タバコ、パン、織物、castellasと呼ばれるスポンジケーキポルトガル語など)を介してインポートされたポルトガルの製品が普及し、日本の文化に同化された。天ぷらはもともとpeixinho-DA-オルタとして知られている人気のポルトガル料理から派生したもので、ポルトガル語からその名を受け取り、 'tempero "この文化交流の永続的な効果の別の例を示します。ポルトガル語も一緒に中国から多くの財をもたらした。
1596年、スペイン船サンフェリペは四国の海岸の沖で難破した、と秀吉はスペインのフランシスコ会が日本のイベリア侵略の先兵であることを、そのパイロットから学んだ。応答では、秀吉はその年の2月5日(すなわち、 "日本の二十六聖人")に長崎で二〇から六カトリック教徒のcrucifixionsを命じた。ポルトガルのトレーダーはしかし、追放などの都市は繁栄し続けていませんでした。

カトリックのオープン宗教としての最後のあがきと、明治維新までの日本での最後の主要な軍事行動は、1637年の島原の乱であった。ヨーロッパ人が直接反乱を扇動したという証拠はありませんが、島原ドメインは数十年のためにキリスト教の藩だった、と反政府勢力は、多くのポルトガル語のモチーフとキリスト教のアイコンを採用しています。その結果、徳川社会の中で単語 "島原"は常に徳川プロパガンダに何度も何度も使用され、キリスト教と不忠の間の接続を固めた。
島原の乱は、外国の影響が鎖国政策につながる、彼らが価値があったよりもトラブルあった多くの政策立案者を説得した。以前に出島と呼ばれる長崎港に特別に構築された島刑務所に住んでいたポルトガルは、完全に列島から追放された、とオランダは、取引の島に平戸でその基地から移動しました。 1720年にオランダの帳簿上の禁止は学者の何百ものヨーロッパの科学と芸術を研究するために長崎にフラッディングを引き起こして、解除された。したがって、長崎は蘭学の中心地となった、あるいは "オランダの学習"。江戸時代、徳川幕府は、その管理責任者として、旗本、長崎奉行を任命し、街を支配した。



参考URL:Nagasaki Wiki
by cluracan | 2012-05-16 21:18 | Discovery


by cluracan


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