【港・集落】 ホロ



Pre-Hispanic period
In the 14th century, Arab traders landed on the island to introduce and convert its inhabitants to Islam. The native inhabitants on the island are the Tausūg people. The Tausugs are part of the larger Moro group which dominates the Sulu Archipelago. The Moro had an independent state known as the Sultanate of Sulu, which was politically and economically centered on Jolo, the residence for Sulu Sultanates. The Seat of the Royal Sultanate of Sulu was in Astana Putih, which is Tausug for ‘White Palace’ in Umbul Duwa in the municipality of Indanan on Jolo Island.

Spanish Colonial Period
In 1521, the explorer Ferdinand Magellan claimed the Philippines for Spain. The Spanish failed to conquer and convert the Muslim areas in the south. After consolidating the northern part of the Philippine islands, they failed to take over the well-organized Muslim Sultanates.

Trading center
Jolo was the regional entrepot and developing city years before the Philippines was even a country. The Sulu economy formed its base around commerce and through the network of nearby trading partners. The Sultanate benefited from importing rice from northern Philippines, as the Sulu region had a chronic rice shortage. The Sultanate was unable to bring agriculture to its full potential because the area was prone to erratic rainfall and drought.

Chinese immigration
Since the 15th century, the Sulu Sultanate traded local produce with neighbors and with countries as far as China by sea. Most of the import and export trade was done with Singapore which was estimated to be worth half a million dollars annually. In 1870, the Tausug lost much of their redistributive trade to the Chinese because of the Spanish cruising system and Chinese immigration from Singapore. Mostly originating from the Fujian province, most of the Chinese in Jolo worked as craftsmen, skilled and unskilled laborers and domestic servants for wealthy Tausugs and Chinese. Singapore served as a training ground from which they learned the Malay language and became experienced in dealing with Southeast Asians. It was these Chinese who eventually dominated trade in Jolo and benefited greatly from Jolo’s status as an entrepot, and exercised profound influence over the Sulu Sultanate. However, the Sultanate was not keen on the Chinese monopoly. By 1875, Sultan Amal ul Azam wanted an English merchant to establish himself in order to break the monopoly at Jolo.
Chinese who lived in Sulu ran guns across a Spanish blockade to supply the Moro Datus and Sultanates with weapons to fight the Spanish, who were engaging in a campaign to subjugate the Moro sultantes on Mindanao. A trade involving the Moros selling slaves and other goods in exchange for guns developed. The Chinese had entered the economy of the sultante, taking control of the Sultanate's economies in Mindanao and dominating the markets. Though the Sultans did not like the fact that the Chinese near exclusvie control over the economy, they did business with them. The Chinese set up a trading network between Singapore, Zamboanga, Jolo and Sulu.
The Chinese sold small arms like Enfield and Spencer Rifles to the Buayan Datu Uto. They were used to battle the Spanish invasion of Buayan. The Datu paid for the weapons in slaves.
The population of Chinese in Mindanao in the 1880s was 1,000. The Chinese ran guns across a Spanish blockade to sell to Mindanao Moros. The purchases of these weapons were paid for by the Moros in slaves in addition to other goods. The main group of people selling guns were the Chinese in Sulu. The Chinese took control of the economy and used steamers to ship goods for exporting and importing. Opium, ivory, textiles, and crockery were among the other goods which the Chinese sold.
The Chinese on Maimbung sent the weapons to the Sulu Sultanate, who used them to battle the Spanish and resist their attacks. A Chinese was one of the Sultan's brother in laws, the Sultan was married to his sister. He and the Sultan both owned shares in the ship (named the Far East) which helped smuggled the wapons.
The Spanish launched a surprise offensive under Colonel Juan Arolas in April 1887 by attacking the Sultanate's capital at Maimbung in an effort to crush resistance. Weapons were captured and the property of the Chinese were destroyed while the Chinese were deported to Jolo.

Spanish control
In 1876, the Spanish attempted to gain control of the Muslims by burning Jolo and were successful.
In March 1877, The Sulu Protocol was signed between Spain, England and Germany which recognized Spain’s rights over Sulu and eased European tensions in the area.

14世紀に、アラブ商人はイスラム教にその住民を導入し、変換するために島に上陸した。島の原住民はTausūg人々です。 Tausugsはスールー諸島を支配する大規模なモログループの一部である。モロは政治的にも経済的にホロ、スールーSultanatesための住居を中心にされたスールーのスルタンと呼ばれる独立した状態を持っていた。スールーのスルタンのロイヤルシートには、ホロ島のIndananの市町村にUmbul Duwaの "ホワイトパレス"のためTausugされているアスタナPutih、であった。



15世紀以来、スールーのスルタンは、近所の人と、海から遠く中国などの国と地元の食材を交換した。輸入と輸出貿易のほとんどは、毎年50万ドルの価値があると推定されたシンガポールで行われました。 1870年に、Tausugためスペインのクルージングシステムとシンガポールから中国入国の中国人に多くの彼らの再分配の貿易を失った。主に福建省から発信され、ホロの中国人のほとんどは職人、熟練と非熟練労働者や裕福なTausugsと中国語の家事使用人として働いていました。シンガポールは、マレー語を学び、東南アジア人に対処する経験になったから、訓練の場として役立った。それは最終的にはホロの貿易を支配し、中継貿易とホロの状態から大きく恩恵を受けて、スールーのスルタン上の深遠な影響力を行使する、これらの中国でした。しかし、スルタンは、中国の独占に熱心ではなかった。 1875年では、スルタン·アマルULアザムはホロでは独占を破るために彼自身を確立するために英語の商人を望んでいた。
中国はBuayan Datu宇土にエンフィールド、スペンサーライフル銃のような小火器を売却した。彼らはBuayanのスペイン侵略と戦うために使用された。 Datuは奴隷に武器を支払った。


参考URL:Jolo,Sulu Wiki
by cluracan | 2012-04-04 14:39 | Discovery


by cluracan


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